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The guidelines in this breadth lay out specific agency to accomplish abstracts such as agenda publications, distance-learning Web sites and educational software added attainable to acceptance with disabilities. The guidelines accept been organized to call basic, broadly acclimated techniques which can be activated to best materials, followed by techniques specific to multimedia and cyberbanking textbooks. Anniversary guideline includes a cardinal of checkpoints. Best checkpoints are followed by techniques account how the checkpoint may be addressed or options for accouterment admission in altered ways. Not every address charge be acclimated to accomplish the checkpoint’s objective, but in abounding cases techniques are not mutually absolute and implementing added than one improves the accessibility of the consistent software.
Please agenda that this certificate does not accommodate a absolute account of guidelines for creating attainable Web sites and software in general. That advice is attainable from several sources, including the following:
Provide admission to images for users who are dark or visually impaired.
Most Web sites use images to aback agreeable and may accept agnate argument referencing these images. Aback agreeable is provided in photographs, diagrams, abstracts tables or archive bodies who are dark or visually broken will absence some or all of the information.
Static images may be fabricated attainable via the alt aspect and, breadth necessary, supplemented by the longdescattribute, which provides a best description than is attainable or activated in alt. longdesc can be retrieved by awning readers or added admission technologies and is sometimes, but not always, fabricated arresting by browsers. Authors may additionally accommodate a argument description placed adjacently to the angel on the page.
Image maps are frequently acclimated for aeronautics aural a Web site. Client-side angel maps may be fabricated attainable through the use of alt in the breadth element. Avoid application server-side angel maps as they can’t be accessed from a keyboard or with a awning reader. If you actually charge use a server-side angel map, consistently abode bombastic argument links adjoining to the map so addition with a awning reader, or addition who can’t use a mouse, can admission the links.
Graphic buttons, such as those begin in some kinds of forms, charge consistently accept alt argument answer what the button does. See Guideline B for added advice about forms and anatomy controls.
A absolutely altered admission to some types of images (e.g., graphs) is to use Scalable Vector Cartoon (SVG), abnormally in HTML-based content. Accessibility appearance of SVG admittance bigger examination and press of images. SVG allows bland amplification of images, which can accommodate large, high-quality cartoon for users with low vision, and metadata included in SVG may be acclimated programmatically to accommodate argument advice about images to dark users. SVG may additionally be acclimated in some multimedia players; for example, to accommodate captions which charge affectation symbols not authentic by argument appearance sets.
For added advice about SVG, see:
Scalable Vector Cartoon (SVG) action at the W3C
Scalable Vector Cartoon 1.1 Specification
Accessibility Appearance in SVG
Provide argument equivalents for all images.
The alt aspect is adapted aback the img and breadth elements are used. A acceptable argument agnate can ambit from alt absolute a distinct chat or abrupt book to several sentences (e.g., via longdesc) in adjustment to abundantly aback advice in a circuitous image. Aback images are acclimated for navigation, such as on a aeronautics bar or angel map, alt may be enough. If an angel is alone acclimated to set atmosphere or accommodate decoration, it is not consistently all-important or alike adorable to accommodate a description. In such cases it is best to accord that angel a absent description, such as absent alt, as approved below. (A absent description informs advantageous technologies that the bright does not charge description. If no description [e.g., no alt] at all is included, advantageous technologies may advertise an unlabeled graphic, arch the user to admiration what is missing.)
Provide allusive alt for all images.
HTML provides specific techniques for abacus argument equivalents to images. Aback application the elements img or area, authors charge accommodate the alt attribute. For example:
For client-side angel maps, consistently accommodate alt aural anniversary . For example:
When it comes to adapted affairs such as announcement authentic or algebraic expressions, aboriginal accede application specialized markup, such as MathML or SVG, or adapted conception and apprehension devices, such as MathType and MathPlayer, rather than images. However, if you charge use images to affectation authentic or algebraic expressions, consistently use alt that either describes the angel or tells the user breadth to get a description. Which you use will depend on what the angel represents. For example, if an blueprint can calmly be reproduced in alt, do so:
Technique A1.2 Use the longdesc aspect to accommodate an all-embracing HTML description, breadth necessary. If an angel represents article that cannot be briefly abbreviated in alt, accommodate complete description of the angel application longdesc, which specifies a URL to a detached argument book that contains a abounding description of the image. For example:
Assistive technology that recognizes longdesc will automatically or, in some cases, manually, accommodate users with admission to this added information. Here is the description independent in figure_2-003desc.html:
Figure two point three is a worldline of a runner. The x arbor ranges from aught to ninety abnormal while the y arbor ranges from aught to one hundred meters. The agent is active amid aught and eleven seconds. This allocation of the blueprint is a beeline band with absolute slope. After eleven seconds, the agent is at the one- hundred-meter mark on the track. The agent is walking amid eleven abnormal and ninety-one seconds. This allocation of the blueprint is a beeline band with abrogating slope. After ninety-one abnormal the agent is aback to position zero, the starting line.Note that the awning clairvoyant JAWS currently will not admit a longdesc that has been activated to a affiliated image.
Write angel descriptions. Ideally, anyone autograph angel descriptions should accept abundant ability of the accountable matter. Writers should accept acceptable autograph abilities and an accomplished command of the cant associated with the subject, as able-bodied as able admission to advertence and abutment materials, such as textbooks and dictionaries, in adjustment to ensure that the descriptions are as bright and authentic as possible. Finally, the descriptions should be advised for accurateness by addition added than the aboriginal writer.
When anecdotic authentic or algebraic expressions, accede application words, rather than symbols, to address the descriptions themselves. Currently, no accepted adjustment exists for articulating complicated algebraic concepts, such as equations, graphs, charts, etc., in announced English, but there are a few frequently acclimated procedures. One such adjustment is MathSpeak, developed by Dr. Abraham Nemeth. MathSpeak provides a way to allege algebraic argument in an actual manner. MathSpeak can usually be abstruse in beneath one hour and contains abounding concepts already accustomed to algebraic and science students.
Here is an archetype of an announcement declared in MathSpeak, taken from the on-line textbook, Physics, by Hans Ohanian (New York: W.W. Norton Publishing Company, 1989, 2nd edition). The MathSpeak description is accounting as follows:
v overbar equals B-frac basin x over basin t E-frac equals B-frac additional one aught aught m over one one s E-frac equals additional nine point one m carve s.
The description folio should additionally accommodate a Aback link, authoritative it attainable for the user to acknowledgment to the actual area on the antecedent page.
A activity at WGBH’s National Center for Attainable Media (NCAM) is belief the development of a connected admission to anecdotic algebraic or authentic tables, illustrations and added beheld material. See the Able Practices for Anecdotic Science Agreeable activity for added information. Also, gh LLC, a aggregation based in West Lafayette, IN, is currently investigating a accepted admission for application MathSpeak to appropriately cede algebraic equations and authentic representations. For added information, see gh’s MathSpeak Initiative.
Checkpoint A2 Allow images and awning layouts to be printed and enlarged. Allowing images to be printed alone from the absolute awning is a simple and broadly advantageous adaptation. Application a printed image, low-vision users can actualize continued images. Dark users can use the book affection to actualize concrete images application specialized equipment. There are concrete cartoon printers attainable that can book an angel and may additionally be able to emboss any agnate argument in braille. Braille printers additionally abide that emboss images application variable-height dots to actualize altered textures on the paper, or amalgamate arresting images with blush ink (such as the ViewPlus Emprint printer). Use accepted operating-system drivers to actualize images and argument to aerate usefulness. For example, accelerate chantry and appearance advice to the printer rather than images of text, because images cannot be adapted to braille.
Provide commands for press the absolute awning or a specific image. Flexibility in press makes it easier for users to get the advice they need.
Use the accepted operating adjustment book API. Specialized printers can use the advice beatific to the OS to actualize a high-quality concrete image. For example, the braille printers from ViewPlus catechumen argument into a braille chantry for angel titles and labels, but alone if the argument is beatific to the printer as appearance advice and not a bitmap.
Allow users to book to a file. Technology for digitally acceptable images is attainable that can, for example, catechumen a photograph into a band cartoon by acceptable the edges of objects. To admittance these conversions, users charge to book the awning or an angel to a abstracted file.
Checkpoint A3 Accommodate concrete cartoon or three-dimensional models for images. For some dark students, account a argument description is far beneath advantageous than exploring a concrete angel or model. Two-dimensional (2D) concrete cartoon can be produced by a array of agency and aback accurately complete can add a abundant accord to a student’s understanding. Three-dimensional (3D) concrete models may be best advantageous for circuitous images that characterize concrete altar or aback 3D characters is acclimated to call an object, for archetype atomic structures for chemistry.
Provide concrete cartoon for images. Concrete cartoon can be created by application “puff paper” that is acrimonious to actualize aloft curve breadth ink is applied. Professional-quality concrete graphics, which are added abiding and added abundant than breath paper, may be created by a cardinal of altered methods. gh LLC creates concrete cartoon application its LaserLine technology. Cartoon may additionally be printed application a braille embosser, such as those fabricated by ViewPlus, which use variable-height dots to actualize altered textures on the paper.
Tactile cartoon may be best able aback accompanied by argument that introduces acceptance to the conventions acclimated and guides them in exploring the graphic. Beneath advice can be conveyed in a concrete bright than in a beheld one because the faculty of blow has lower resolution than eyes does, so it may booty added than one concrete bright to abduction the advice absolutely in a circuitous beheld diagram.
Because creating concrete cartoon requires a absolute ability of the perceptual processes of dark students, it may be best to acquaintance one of the able assets listed in Appendix 1, Braille and Concrete Cartoon Assembly Resources. Once created, the set of concrete cartoon can be fabricated attainable either through the publisher’s administration apparatus or through an adjustment with the concrete bright assembly facility. Availability of concrete cartoon should be acutely accurate on the Web site, including acquaintance information. Availability of cartoon should additionally be listed with the American Press House for the Blind, a axial antecedent of advice on how educators can locate attainable materials, listed in Appendix 1.
Provide 3D models for circuitous images. In some cases, alike a acceptable 2D concrete bright is beneath advantageous than experiencing the appearance of an object. Perspective projections of 3D images assimilate 2D representations are about abortive for dark users. Neither a argument description of an angel of a DNA fiber nor a collapsed concrete graphic, for example, best conveys the abounding advice about the appearance and anatomy of DNA. A concrete archetypal of the DNA fiber acclimated in affiliation with argument will bigger accommodated dark students’ needs. Attainable assets for creating 3D models are listed in Appendix 1. Once created, the models can be fabricated attainable either through the publisher’s administration apparatus or through an adjustment fabricated with the archetypal assembly facility.
Availability of 3D models should be acutely accurate in artefact advice and in any adapted abecedary abutment materials. Availability of models should additionally be listed with the American Press House for the Blind, a axial antecedent of advice on how educators can locate attainable materials, listed in Appendix 1.
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